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Introduction and Overview of Executive Function

Executive Function (EF) refers to a set of cognitive processes that help individuals manage themselves and their resources to achieve goals. These processes include working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control, which together enable planning, focusing attention, remembering instructions, and juggling multiple tasks effectively. EF skills are crucial not just in academic settings but across all areas of life, influencing everything from navigating social interactions to managing daily tasks.

Organization is one of four pillars of EF that we focus on at SAOTG. The others are time management, learning skills, and impression management. While all four pillars are crucial for student success, organization is the starting point for the other three.

Proper organization supports efficient study habits, reduces stress, and can significantly improve performance by providing clear paths to task completion and goal attainment. For students, mastering organization paves the way for enhanced learning experiences and better academic outcomes. By keeping track of assignments, understanding material organization within subjects, and maintaining tidy workspaces, students can focus more effectively and use their cognitive resources for deep learning rather than for compensating for disarray.

Why Organization is Step 1 for Executive Function

Organization is the cornerstone for developing robust EF skills. It lays the groundwork for more advanced EF capacities like planning, task initiation, and sustained attention.

Poor organization disrupts the other three pillars of Executive Function. Students waste substantial time searching for information or deciding on tasks due to disorganized materials and unclear priorities. This inefficiency cuts into actual study time and task completion. Conversely, organized students can dive right into tasks, thanks to well-sorted resources and clear schedules. Cluttered study areas or jumbled notes hinder the ability to find key information, leading to inefficient study sessions and weak material grasp. Organized notes and structured study materials, however, create an environment that promotes better comprehension and memory retention. It also affects how students are perceived by peers and educators—what we call impression management. An organized student appears more responsible and capable, likely leading to favorable interactions and better academic opportunities. In contrast, disorganization might suggest a lack of seriousness or competence, potentially affecting a student’s academic and professional future.

Poor organizational skills exacerbate decision fatigue and procrastination—two significant barriers to academic success. Decision fatigue arises from the overwhelming number of daily decisions about what to study or complete next, leading to poorer decision quality over time. This often results in procrastination, as the mental effort required to organize on the fly is taxing and makes starting tasks more daunting. Additionally, disorganization undermines academic momentum. Students caught in disorganized patterns experience inconsistent study routines, preventing the development of a smooth, consistent study rhythm essential for long-term success. By building strong organizational skills, students can avoid these pitfalls, enhancing their academic performance and overall well-being.

Where Organization Happens

Physical Binders: Effective organization of physical binders is essential for students to keep track of their academic responsibilities. A well-organized binder should have dividers for each subject, and possibly subsections for notes, homework, and returned tests or assignments. This system not only saves time when searching for materials but also helps students mentally segregate and manage their coursework systematically.

Digital Platforms: In the digital realm, organization means maintaining a structured file system on computers and utilizing online tools effectively. Students should create specific folders for each subject on their devices and regularly archive or delete unnecessary files to keep their digital space uncluttered. Learning to manage emails by setting up folders for different classes or activities can further streamline digital workflows and enhance productivity.

Study Spaces: Organizing a study area is crucial for effective learning. A designated study space should be tidy and free from distractions, with all necessary materials within reach to minimize movement and maintain focus. This space should also be ergonomically set up to promote sustained study periods without discomfort.

Lockers and Other Areas: Lockers, backpacks, and even digital desktops should be organized at regular intervals. These spaces can become cluttered easily, and regular maintenance can prevent the buildup of unnecessary items that can distract from or hinder academic tasks. Effective locker organization ensures that books and materials needed for classes are easily accessible, reducing daily stress and supporting overall academic organization strategies.

Key Principles for Effective Organization

Key Principle 1: Consistency in Systems

A foundational organizing principle is the establishment of consistent systems. Consistency in organizing methods, such as always using the same color coding for subjects or having a designated place for all study materials, reduces the cognitive load required to organize or find items. This uniformity allows students to internalize their organizational habits, making the process almost automatic and significantly reducing the likelihood of items being misplaced or tasks being overlooked.

Consistency is often heralded as the hallmark of greatness. Whether in the meticulous routines of athletes like Michael Phelps or the rigid structure of a CEO’s day, consistency shapes outcomes. For students, establishing consistent organizational systems serves a similar purpose, acting as both scaffolding for academic success and a framework that reduces the cognitive overhead associated with daily tasks. Just as pilots and surgeons rely on pre-flight checklists and surgical checklists to ensure safety and efficiency, students benefit from established systems that make effective decision-making automatic.

In the realm of education, consistent organizational systems play a crucial role by removing the need for constant decision-making about where to place or find study materials. When students adopt uniform methods—for example, always using blue for math notes and red for English—they reduce the time and mental effort needed to organize or locate specific items. This standardized approach allows students to operate almost on autopilot, much like a pilot using a checklist before takeoff ensures all systems are good to go, preventing potential issues mid-flight.

Furthermore, these systems help in forging habits that require minimal willpower to maintain. By setting up an environment where the right choices are the easiest to make, students can channel their cognitive resources towards more complex tasks like learning and critical thinking instead of mundane organizational decisions. In academic settings, this means creating a study environment where everything has its place and the tools needed for learning are at the student’s fingertips.

These systems also cultivate a sense of reliability and trust in one’s own abilities. Students who consistently find success in their organizational methods build confidence, much like a doctor gains trust in their surgical team and process through repeated successful outcomes. This self-assurance can transform their academic journey, encouraging a more engaged and proactive approach to learning.

In essence, when students establish and maintain consistent organizational systems, they’re setting the stage not just for academic success but for lifelong habits that value preparation, foresight, and efficiency. These systems act as the rudders that guide students through the turbulent seas of school life, ensuring they can navigate challenges with confidence and skill.

Key Principle 2: Integration into Daily Routines

Effective organization interwoven into a student’s daily routines acts not just as a tool for academic success but as a cornerstone for broader life skills. When organizational tasks are seamlessly integrated into daily activities, they form the bedrock upon which other productive habits can be built. This principle of “habit stacking,” as coined by author James Clear, suggests that by anchoring new habits to a routine that’s already set in stone, students can more effectively build and maintain new habits.

Consider a student’s day, typically segmented into several critical phases: preparing for school in the morning, transitioning between classes, returning home, and winding down at night. By embedding organizational habits at each phase, students create a series of small wins that enhance academic performance and help sustain motivation and prevent burnout.

A robust morning routine sets the tone for the day. Students can use organizational systems to ensure that every morning is smooth and stress-free. This might involve checking a planner every morning to review the day’s classes and ensuring that all necessary materials are packed the night before. Such a system helps minimize morning chaos, allowing students to start their day with a sense of control and preparedness.

After school, a “shutdown ritual” can be crucial in helping students transition from school mode to home mode effectively. This ritual might include sorting through the day’s materials, filing away completed assignments, and preparing the workspace for the next session of homework or study. This not only keeps their study space organized but also helps mentally close out the school day, reducing the risk of academic materials becoming scattered or forgotten.

Before each class begins, a brief organizational ritual can ensure that students have all necessary materials ready. This might involve a quick review of their binder or digital files to ensure they have the relevant notebooks, textbooks, and technological devices. Such rituals not only save time but also reduce anxiety about being unprepared, allowing students to focus fully on the lesson.

Incorporating organizational tasks into these daily routines does more than keep students prepared; it builds a scaffolding for other important habits. For example, once a student is used to checking their planner every morning, they might begin to plan out their study sessions or set specific academic goals for the week. Similarly, the habit of preparing for the next day can naturally lead to a review of what was learned that day, which reinforces content retention and prepares them for upcoming classes. Moreover, using organization to “habit stack” helps students outsource decision-making to systems. By having set times and ways to organize their academic materials, students no longer need to expend mental energy deciding when or how to get their materials ready. This reduction in decision fatigue is crucial in avoiding burnout, as it allows students to reserve their mental resources for more demanding academic challenges and personal growth activities.

The cumulative effect of these small organizational wins throughout the day and week builds what can be termed as academic momentum. Each small step, each minor routine that is followed diligently, adds up to a significant increase in overall efficiency and confidence. Like a snowball rolling down a hill, every small win gathers more strength and speed, propelling students toward greater achievements and higher self-efficacy.

Key Principle 3: Flexibility and Adaptation

Organization is not merely about keeping materials in order for the current school year; it’s about developing a system that can transition with them throughout their educational career.

Principles like ‘everything in its place’ or ‘making decision-making easier through systems’ can simplify daily routines. But as students mature, their academic workload increases, often including more complex projects and a higher volume of digital content. Thus, the organizational systems they learned early on need to adapt to accommodate these new challenges. Teaching students to ‘reset’ or ‘sharpen the saw’ regularly is essential to prevent the breakdown of organizational systems. This habit involves regularly evaluating and refining their systems to better suit their current academic and personal needs.

For example, a middle schooler’s simple binder system might need transformation into a more sophisticated digital organization strategy as they move into high school and begin handling more assignments online. These periodic adjustments not only keep the system efficient but also ensure that students remain engaged with their method of organization, seeing it as a tool that grows and changes as they do.

As students progress through different grade levels, the complexity of their academic and personal lives tends to increase. They may start to manage more digital files, engage with more complex research projects, and handle a greater volume of emails. Here, the principles of organization they’ve learned need to be adaptable. Teaching students how to extend the fundamental principles of physical organization into the digital realm is critical. This might involve learning how to effectively use digital calendars for scheduling, cloud-based services for file storage, and email folders for communication management.

Key Principle 4: Leveraging Technology

Leveraging technology
for organization is essential. Technology dramatically transforms the landscape of student organization, streamlining processes that once required cumbersome manual intervention and significantly enhancing both academic and personal productivity.

Cloud storage services like Google Drive, Dropbox, or OneDrive revolutionize how students store and access their work—ensuring that documents, presentations, and notes are just a click away, whether the student is accessing them from school or home. This ease of access across devices not only saves time but also promotes a seamless flow of information, which is particularly invaluable when collaborating on group projects. Real-time collaboration features mean that documents can be edited and shared simultaneously by multiple users, fostering a dynamic and interactive learning environment.

By integrating these technological tools into their organizational strategies, students not only streamline their academic workflows but also cultivate digital fluency—skills that are increasingly crucial in both academic and professional contexts. This integration prepares students for future challenges, equipping them with the ability to navigate complex digital landscapes efficiently.

Key Principle 5: Regular Reviews and Maintenance

Organization is not a set-it-and-forget-it skill. It requires ongoing attention and maintenance. Periodic clean-ups of physical and digital spaces can prevent clutter from accumulating and ensure that systems are optimized to support current academic priorities. Regular reviews also provide an opportunity to reflect on what is or isn’t working, allowing for timely adjustments that keep systems efficient and effective.

The need for regular system reviews can be likened to the upkeep of a garden; just as a gardener must regularly weed, prune, and assess plant health, students must clear out clutter, reorganize, and evaluate the functionality of their organizational systems. Physical spaces like desks and lockers, for instance, should be decluttered at the end of each term; digital spaces require similar attention, with old files deleted and new folder structures created to better meet current needs.

Such maintenance ensures that organizational systems do not become obsolete or burdensome. It prevents the accumulation of unused or irrelevant materials that can cloud focus and impede productivity. More importantly, these reviews afford students the opportunity to reflect on what methods are working and what aren’t—allowing for timely adjustments that enhance their efficiency and effectiveness. Regular maintenance also cultivates a proactive mindset among students, teaching them the value of foresight and preparation. By periodically evaluating and updating their organizational strategies, students not only maintain control over their academic and personal environments but also embed these practices as lifelong habits. This proactive approach minimizes stress and fosters a disciplined, ordered approach to both schoolwork and life.

Practical Tips to Help Students Organize

In transitioning from the foundational principles of organization to practical applications, this section aims to bridge the gap between theoretical understanding and everyday practice. By providing specific, actionable tactics, we equip students, parents, and educators with the tools necessary to implement these organizational strategies effectively. These guidelines are designed to be intuitive and integrative, ensuring that the organizational skills students develop are not only effective but also sustainable and adaptable to their evolving academic and personal needs.

The goal here is to translate broad organizational concepts into concrete actions that can be routinely applied. This not only demystifies the process of organization for students but also fosters a sense of autonomy and competence as they learn to manage their academic responsibilities more proficiently.

Physical Binders

Maintaining an organized binder is crucial for academic success. It allows students to systematically manage their coursework and easily access necessary materials. To start, students should use a binder with dividers for each subject, and within each section, further subdivide materials into categories like class notes, homework, and returned assignments or tests. This structure not only streamlines the search for documents during study sessions but also aids in keeping a clear record of coursework progress and deadlines.

The SAOTG binder method refines this approach by suggesting a dedicated divider for each class, with subdividers for each type of paper—homework, notes, tests, quizzes—within those class sections. This meticulous categorization ensures that students can file away or retrieve documents in ten seconds or less, optimizing their study time and reducing the mental load of managing multiple subjects. Such organization makes it possible for students to focus more on learning and less on managing materials, thereby enhancing their overall academic experience.

Encourage students to perform a weekly binder check to remove any unnecessary papers and reorganize materials that may have been misplaced. This regular maintenance helps keep the binder functional and prevents it from becoming so bulky that it’s difficult to use effectively. Additionally, it’s beneficial to have a consistent schedule for archiving old materials at the end of each semester; this keeps the binder manageable and ready for incoming information.

To implement the SAOTG binder method effectively, it is important to start with the right materials. Students should select binders that are sturdy and dividers that are durable enough to handle frequent use. For each class, labels should be clearly marked on the dividers and subdividers, possibly using color-coding to enhance visual sorting. This not only saves time when searching for specific items during study sessions or class time but also helps in maintaining a mental map of where each item is located, which is crucial during high-pressure periods like exams.

For parents and educators looking to assist students in setting up this system, a detailed list of recommended binder-making materials is available here. This list ensures that students are equipped with the best resources to effectively manage their coursework, fostering a habit of organization that can significantly enhance their academic performance and reduce stress.

Digital Organization

As students advance in their academic careers, digital organization becomes increasingly important. Much like the SAOTG binder method provides a structured approach to managing physical documents, digital organization tools allow students to handle their electronic materials with similar efficiency. Teaching students to create a dedicated folder for each subject on their computer or cloud storage service is the digital equivalent of using dividers in a physical binder. Within these folders, further organization by topic or project can help keep digital documents orderly and easily accessible.

The transition from physical to digital organization involves converting foundational principles into a new medium where tools such as tagging and search functionalities can greatly enhance efficiency. For instance, digital tools like Evernote and Dropbox offer the ability to add ‘tags’ to documents, enabling students to quickly filter through files across subject folders. Tags can be based on time-periods (e.g., October 2022), due dates (e.g., due this week), or specific uses (e.g., helpful for finals), facilitating fast and efficient retrieval of documents relevant to a day’s tasks or final exam preparations.

Moreover, digital organization platforms come equipped with search functionalities that allow students to navigate through hundreds of documents instantly—a feature unimaginable with physical binders. However, this powerful tool should complement rather than replace foundational organizational habits. It is most effective when used to refine searches within a well-structured digital filing system, such as finding specific sections in notes or paragraphs in handouts that are relevant to the task at hand.

Scanning is another significant advantage of digital over physical organization. Non-traditional papers like oversized handouts and graphic organizers, which are cumbersome in a physical binder, can be easily managed in a digital format. Tools integrated within organization apps or standalone apps like the Apple Notes scanner allow for seamless digital entry of such documents. Regular scanning sessions can help keep both the physical and digital binders manageable and prevent the clutter typically associated with unfiled or misfiled papers.

Lastly, digital binders serve a crucial longevity function that physical binders struggle to match. As students move into higher education levels, the cumulative nature of courses often necessitates access to lessons from previous years. Platforms like Google Drive or Evernote not only facilitate this by providing ample storage but also ensure that past academic work is easily accessible, offering a continuous link to valuable resources and previous learning.

Study Spaces

Creating an optimal study space is as critical as the study habits themselves. The right environment can significantly boost a student’s focus and productivity, much like a well-tuned sports car performs best on a smooth track. The concept of home-field advantage applies here—students are more likely to succeed academically in a space that is not only functional but tailored to their personal study preferences.

To begin, the study area must be well-lit, preferably with natural light, to keep the student alert and minimize eye strain. The space should be quiet and free from distractions, equipped only with the essentials needed for effective studying. This could mean a room with a door that can be closed, or in quieter corners of the home if a separate room isn’t available. Each student’s noise preference and distraction tolerance should be considered; while some may require complete silence, others might benefit from a little background music or white noise.

The physical setup of the study space should promote good posture and comfort without encouraging relaxation to the point of sleep. A desk and a comfortable chair that supports ergonomics will prevent fatigue during long study sessions. The space should be inviting yet functional, with minimal distractions. Decorative elements that inspire or personalize the space can enhance the student’s comfort and willingness to spend time there.

It’s important to ensure that all necessary study materials are at hand. This means stocking the study space with supplies like pens, notebooks, textbooks, a calculator, and other essentials. Having these items readily available saves time and reduces the temptation to leave the study space, which can lead to procrastination. Additionally, incorporating organizational tools like a whiteboard or a bulletin board can visually track assignments and deadlines, reinforcing the structure within the study routine.

For digital needs, ensure that the student has access to a printer, scanner, and a reliable internet connection. These tools support the seamless transition between physical and digital workspaces. A printer is invaluable for submitting physical copies of assignments, while a scanner can help digitize notes and handouts for easier access and organization.

But technology should be managed wisely within the study space. While devices are indispensable for most modern educational tasks, they can also be significant sources of distraction. Implementing rules such as silencing notifications or using apps that limit distracting websites during study times can help students maintain focus. Encouraging students to have specific tech-free periods can further enhance their concentration and productivity. It’s about creating a balance that leverages technology’s benefits to boost learning while minimizing its potential to disrupt attention. By thoughtfully setting up and managing their study spaces, students can create a conducive environment that not only enhances their immediate academic performance but also builds habits that foster long-term educational success.

Regular maintenance of the study space is crucial. This involves daily tasks such as tidying up after each study session, ensuring that supplies like paper are replenished, and technology is functioning properly. A clean, well-organized space sets a positive tone and can make the study time more inviting and less of a chore.

Lockers and Other Areas

Organizational skills are universally applicable and crucial in ensuring that students remain effective and efficient across various environments. By applying organizational principles to different spaces—whether a locker, a backpack, a temporary study area in a coffee shop, or a workspace in a lab—students can maintain control and ease in managing their academic and extracurricular activities.

Lockers are a prime example of an often-overlooked space that, when organized, can significantly streamline a student’s day. Using shelves or organizers to separate materials by subject or class period can drastically reduce the time spent searching for items during the rush between classes. Encouraging students to do a mid-semester and end-of-semester cleanup can prevent the accumulation of unnecessary items and keep the locker in a state that supports quick transitions and reduces stress.

Backpacks are another critical area where organizational principles play a vital role. Advising students to carry only the essentials can prevent both physical strain and the mental clutter of sifting through extraneous items to find what they need. Establishing a routine for weekly cleanouts of the backpack ensures that it remains tidy and functional, with everything in its rightful place, thus promoting organizational efficiency.

When considering temporary or shared spaces like library desks or coffee shop tables, the principles of minimalism and mobility are key. Students should be encouraged to carry a portable organizer—a smaller binder or digital device that houses all necessary materials for the session. This portable organizer can include designated sections for different subjects or projects, mirroring the organization of a more permanent space like a locker or desk at home. By maintaining this level of organization, students can transition smoothly between spaces without losing productivity or focus.

Similarly, students involved in sports or extracurricular activities can benefit from applying organizational principles to their sports bags or equipment lockers. Keeping gear systematically arranged and doing regular checks to replace or repair equipment can prevent last-minute scrambles before practices or performances. Techniques such as labeling compartments or using specific bags for different types of gear (e.g., separate bags for wet and dry items in swimming) can also enhance organization.

Making Organization Appealing for Students

Organizational principles are only useful if we can get students to adapt them. Often, students view organization as a mundane or cumbersome task that offers no immediate gratification. However, by reframing organizational skills as essential tools for achieving personal and academic goals, and by making the process more engaging, we can shift this perception. It’s crucial to communicate the direct benefits of organization, such as reduced stress, better grades, and more free time, which can make the effort seem worthwhile in the eyes of a student.

To enhance the appeal of organization, parents and teachers should turn to gamification and personalization. Gamification involves incorporating elements typical of game playing, such as point scoring, competition, and rules of play, into the organizational process. For instance, creating a points system for staying organized throughout the week can motivate students. They might earn points for keeping their desk tidy or for submitting assignments on time, which could then be exchanged for small rewards. This approach not only makes organization fun but also continuously engages students in their own habit formation process.

Personalization is another effective strategy to make organization more appealing. This involves allowing students to customize their organizational systems according to their preferences and interests. For example, letting them choose the layout of their planners, the design of their study spaces, or the color coding of their folders can make the organizing process feel more personal and less like a chore. When students feel a sense of ownership over their organization, they are more likely to engage with and maintain it.

Moreover, teachers and parents can provide positive reinforcement and incentives to encourage organizational habits. Acknowledging and rewarding students when they display good organizational skills can reinforce these behaviors. Whether through verbal praise, a note home, or some form of class recognition, emphasizing the importance of organization while recognizing their efforts can significantly boost their motivation. By making organization a positive and integral part of students’ academic lives, we not only improve their current educational experience but also equip them with valuable skills for the future.


As outlined throughout this guide, effective organization serves as a pivotal foundation for developing critical cognitive processes that underpin planning, focus, memory retention, and multitasking abilities. These skills are essential not only for academic achievement but also for personal development and future professional success. By mastering organization, students can significantly reduce stress, improve their learning efficiency, and position themselves favorably in both educational and social settings.

For parents and educators, the actionable steps provided in this guide are designed to be immediately implementable to foster better organizational habits among students. By integrating these practices, such as maintaining organized binders, leveraging digital tools, and creating effective study spaces, students can observe noticeable improvements in their academic performance and overall well-being. It’s essential for mentors to encourage consistent application of these strategies, adapt them to fit the student’s individual needs, and provide ongoing support and reinforcement to solidify these habits.

For those seeking further resources and support in the area of student organization, numerous online platforms and articles offer additional insights and strategies. Our website provides extensive content on organizational skills and methods tailored specifically for students, including tips on digital organization and making organizational tasks appealing. Engaging with these resources can provide parents and educators with the tools they need to effectively guide their students in developing robust organizational skills that will benefit them throughout their academic journey and beyond.

Evan Weinberger


Staying Ahead of the Game offers unique academic coaching & tutoring services to help good students achieve greatness.

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